Wednesday, June 30, 2010


Its been a long time i left this blog. hehehe.. sorry to the follower.
U can view my second blog "ScienPen".
I think I wanna update it.. since i left it for a long long long long time.. hehehe

Tuesday, May 26, 2009

Journal 3

Article title : Projects in a sixth-grade classroom: entering a bumpy but promising road
Author : Ana Manuela Lopez and Aurora Lacueva
Journal Collection: Educational Action Research Volume 16 (2) page 163-185
Publisher : Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
Year : 2008

The aim of this project was to transform the educational practice by developing pedagogical initiatives in order to accomplish classroom project work in a more productive way and to improve both students’ participation in the decision-making and their opportunities for investigation and reflection.

Participation from thirty-seven students; twenty were girls and seventeen were boys with ages ranging from 10 to 13 years having a socioeconomic level considered predominantly lower-middle class.

This action research was conducted in sixth-grade classroom in a Venezuelan school located in the central district of the capital city of Caracas. For the first project, it took 7 weeks. It is comprised 14 work sessions of two and half hours each. The second project took 5 weeks to accomplish and comprised 10 sessions. Same as first project, each session took about two and half hours. Therefore, the total estimated time for the first and second project was 600 hours of work with 24 sessions.

Method used was spiral-like circles starting with exploration, then design and planning, after that execution, follow-up and interpretation, and lastly evaluation. After the first cycle, exploration becomes an explanation of both accomplishments and shortcomings. Two AR circles were conducted; ‘The Human Body’ and ‘The Animals’. Information was gathered via journal of activities, video-taped, audio-taped, photographs and simple assignment from the students. Editing, transcription and cataloguing of the information gathered were conducted and chronological description was made. Data were analyzed according to themes in a deductive-inductive manner. In order to attain credibility, methods, sources and theories were triangulated. Data stability was sought based on detailed description of the collection and interpretation of information.

Research outcomes:
This research had promoted the action research approach towards implementation in the institution. The methodology used in this investigation educates and empowers the teachers, lead to positive changes in various aspects in education as well as produce relevant practical and theoretical contributions. Collaboration between students especially during group work was observed. Not only collaboration had been made, also leadership skill in individuals had been ‘polished’ so when these students grow up there are able to become a leader for an organization.

Sunday, May 24, 2009

Book Review

Book title : Action Research in Teaching and Learning: A practical guide to conducting pedagogical research in universities.
Author : Lin S. Norton
Publisher : Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
State : New York, NY
Year : 2009

This book consists of eleven chapters. Here is the list of chapters in this book:
1. Putting pedagogical action research into the university context: what are the pressures?
2. Why being a reflective practitioner?
3. Why engage with the scholarship of teaching and learning?
4. What is the case for pedagogical action research?
5. Where do you start a pedagogical action research study?
6. What are the most suitable research methodologies?
7. How can you analyse qualitative data in pedagogical action research?
8. How can you analyse quantitative data in pedagogical action research?
9. How can you develop and adapt pedagogical research tools?
10. What are the ethical issues involved in pedagogical action research?
11. Going public: How can you grow the influence of your findings?

Chapter 1: Putting pedagogical action research into the university context: what are the pressures?

Some pressure faced by the researcher is time, commitment and resources. In order to achieve targeted goal, it require more justification and knowledge about their own research, so at the end the others will not argue about their findings. There are three level of academic practice:
1. The macro level – include the institution, external factors, academic labour and the research-teaching nexus.
2. The meso level - the department and the subject discipline.
3. The micro level – internal factors affecting the individual lecturer.

Chapter 2: Why being a reflective practitioner?

Reflective practice means that we will reflect regarding our own new situations or problems. New situation may develop new experience and new challenges that had to be faced by teacher. This is a core element of teachers’ work because it will improve their own practice, students and teacher will modeling the reflective process for students. Action research enables us to reflect on our teaching in a systematic way as well as encourages academics to take control of their own professional development by being active learners. This because action research encourages collaboration, increase teacher willingness spending time addressing education problems and gives teachers a voice to improve academic situation. Collaborative action research (CAR) always links together with action research. Within CAR, researcher will develop questions based on their own experiences and try to answer it by doing their own methods or cycle through various processes such as implementing, monitor the effects, refining the action, retesting, reflecting and so on. CAR share the same characteristics as action research where learning is predicated on active experience and improvement through cyclical processes provide a successful result for long term effect.

There are also some probable factors that can limit reflective practice. It’s hard to change beliefs or practices which had been routine for thousand of years of some institution because action research will bring improvement. Being passive and not accept any change give a greater barrier in order to implement the research cycle. Also feedback and evaluations can be affected by other factors. Reflective practice also requires a lot of time and energy in order to achieve targeted goals. Reflective process also being too concern with the current practical problem in teaching and learning which influence other social problem become less important.

Chapter 3: Why engage with the scholarship of teaching and learning?

The concept of scholarship were introduced since research and teaching being in opposition to each other. Privileged of new findings and any other important aspects of academic works were unreasonable. Scholarship for each country was different depends on the economy and political condition. So, Boyer (1990) proposed four domains of scholarship:
1. The scholarship of discovery.
2. The scholarship of integration.
3. The scholarship of application.
4. The scholarship of teaching.

There are also four differing conceptions of the scholarship of teaching:
1. Teachers conduct and publish research.
2. Scholarship of teaching as teaching excellence.
3. Teachers use the literature to inform their own practice.
4. Reflection and communication also essential scholarly elements.
The important of the scholarship is:
1. Give big impact on education.
2. Emphasis students learn performance.
3. Increase teaching status.
4. Enable teachers to teach more knowledgeably.
5. Provide a framework to assess teaching quality.
6. To teach better certain concept so students able to master that topic.
7. As a catalyst for curriculum changes in school education.

Pedagogical action research fit into the scholarship of teaching and learning because:
• Pedagogical action research has dual focus on practice and theory.
• It enables us to actively engage with the theoretical knowledge that underpins the scholarship of teaching and learning.
• Pedagogical action research is problem-based learning process.
• To immerse new teachers into the profession and enhance their professional growth.
• Pedagogical action research is a systematic process which required relevant literature to support relevant pedagogical theory.
• Need theoretical reflection to give new insights about teaching and learning.

Chapter 4: What is the case for pedagogical action research?
There are three types of action research:
1. Technical/technical-collaborative/scientific-technical/positivist
a. To test a particular intervention
b. Collaboration between the expert researcher and practitioners.
2. Mutual-collaborative/practical-deliberative-interpretivist perepective
a. To enable practitioners to interpret and thereby change their practice.
3. Enhancement approach/critical-emancipatory action research/critical science perspective
a. Focusing on understanding the social and political context.
b. Usually begin with a critique of theory based on practice experience.

Characteristics of action research:
1. Social practice
2. Aimed towards improvement of the individual students, curriculum, department, also policy and institution strategy.
3. Cyclical
a. Cycle of reflection, planning, acting, observing, reflecting and so on.
b. Since action research is interpretive, so further refinement need to be considered.
4. Systematic enquiry
5. Reflective
6. Participative
a. Participation form the other person may via electronic discussion, mail, comment, workshop and research seminar.
7. Determined by the practitioners
a. Decide relevant topic driven from a problem or an issue to improve or address it.

Purposes of doing action research:
• Train teacher analyzing their own practice.
• Train teacher analyzing their research methods and expertise.
• An aid to reflective thinking.
• A support for professional efficacy.
• To challenge current belief, concept and theories.
• To improve student learning experience and their academic performance.
• To understand process of teaching and learning.
• As a method for professional development.
• To enhance the quality of teaching and learning.
• To induct new professionals.

Chapter 5: Where do you start a pedagogical action research study?
Kurt Lewis proposed a series of steps composed of planning, action and fact finding about the result of the action taken. Another action research cycle is starting from observing, planning, acting to carry out the change and reflecting to evaluate the effect of the improvement/change that had been made. Typically, there are more than one cycle will be used, depends on the situation. A simple process that proposed by Norton (2009) for carrying out action research starting from identifying a problem, then thinking of ways to address the problem, doing it by taking an action, evaluate our action and lastly modify if there any ameliorate need to be done.

Chapter 6: What are the most suitable research methodologies?
Before starting our research, it is important to know about a research protocol. Research protocol is a guideline in writing our research. Here is the format for writing a research protocol:
1. Front page with the full title, a version number, the date and contact details of research teams.
2. Description of proposed research
a. Summary of the aim, significance, design and proposed methodology.
3. Theoretical background
a. Critical review of the current research literature.
4. Research methodology
a. Justify proposed method.
b. Outline any potential methodological difficulties and plans for addressing them.
c. Also include the type of design to be used, materials whether qualitative or quantitative data, sample and procedure.
5. Analysis of data
a. Outline statistical test will be used in the research.
6. Timetable
7. Dissemination plans
a. Outline research outcome which might benefit students, policy, practice and so on
8. Continuation plans
a. Effect of research findings whether can modify practice or not.
b. Outline the next cycle of action research.
9. References

Questionnaire and interview is common types of data gathering methods. There are three main types of question used in questionnaires; open-ended questions, closed questions and attitude scales, while types of interview are structured interview where the questions are predetermined, semi-structured interviews with predetermined questions but are more flexible and lastly unstructured interviews which required very long time.

When researcher decide to use experimental design to test the sample, independent group design, match participants design and repeated measures design can be used. Independent group design involves two main groups, independent group and control group. Dependant variable needed to be focused so that an appropriate measure of effect is formulated. In order to test a hypothesis whether accepted or not, statistical analysis needed to be performed. Matched participants design is used when researcher want to match the variables. Repeated measures design used when the same participants are measured twice. Unfortunately, there are possibilities where participants tend to improve with practice. So, the result will be not valid.

Observational research is used to find out the effects of an intervention. Thus, we have to look into behavior, the person who make an observation and recorded method. There are three types of observation can be used; direct, naturalistic and participant observation (direct or naturalistic). Process involve is continuous mentoring, time sampling where we set the time systematically and event sampling where we only record specific interested behavior.

Correlation studies or correlation research is a statistical technique to show the relationship between two independent categories/variables. This relationship can be positive, which mean high score in one variable related to a high score in the other variable, and negative relationship, which mean high score in one variable related to a low score in the other variable. There also will be no relationship between tested variables.

Chapter 7: How can you analyse qualitative data in pedagogical action research?

There are many types of qualitative analysis, such as grounded theory, discourse analysis, semiotics, thematic analysis and content analysis. Thematic analysis is to search for patterns. Stage involve in this type of analysis (thematic analysis) as mentioned below:
Stage 1: Immersion
Stage 2: Generating categories
Stage 3: Deleting categories
Stage 4: Merging categories
Stage 5: Checking themes
Stage 6: Linking themes
Stage 7: Presentation research findings

Stage involve in content analysis as mentioned below:
Stage 1: Deciding on the unit of analysis
Stage 2: Dividing transcript into units of analysis
Stage 3: Construct categories
Stage 4: Assign units of analysis to categories
Stage 5: Calculate the percentage of information units that fall into each category

Chapter 8: How can you analyse quantitative data in pedagogical action research?

Quantitative analysis is important where the method is an experiment, an attitude scale or questionnaire, an observation study which involves counting and data contain information that is quantifiable. There are two types statistical analysis fall into this category; descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Descriptive analysis is used to present data in an easy way. It includes measures of central tendency or averages (mean, median and mode), measures of dispersion or variability (range, mean deviation and standard deviation) and frequency counts.

Inferential statistics is used to draw some conclusion from the data that had been collected. Usually, it is used to test a hypothesis. There are three types of inferential statistics; test for correlations, test for differences in means and test for goodness of fit. For correlation test, we usually use Spearman’s rho and Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. For test of differences for repeated measures (paired variables), we usually use the sign test (S), Wilcoxon matched pairs test and Student’s t-test. For test of differences for independent groups, the Mann-Whitney U test will be used. For test of goodness of fit, Chi-square will be used.

Chapter 10: What are the ethical issues involved in pedagogical action research?
The fundamental principle of ethical research is to inform consent, privacy and confidentiality and to protect from harm. Acting ethically involves making some careful and considered decisions at the research design state, as well as in seeking formal ethical approval from our relevant instructional department.

Journal 2

Article title : The implementation of a collaborative action research
programme for developing inclusive practices: social learning
in small internal networks.
Author : Panayiotis Angelides, Renos Georgiou and Kyriaki Kyriakou
Journal Collection: Educational Action Research Volume 16 (4) page 557 - 568
Publisher : Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
Year : 2008

The aim of this project was to investigating the implementation of a collaborative action research (CAR) programme for the development of inclusive practices. .

Three researcher were involved, namely Renos, a teacher and coordinator of the research; Panayiotis, an academic specializing in inclusive education; and Kyriaki, the teacher in the CAR class. The third class which had 17 pupils had chosen which the CAR was implemented.

Research was took place in village primary school in the Famagusta district, Cyprus. Research was conducted for 16 weeks.

For the beginning, all of them we met and designed the research. The meaning of the term `inclusive education’ was clarified. After designing the research, CAR was implemented in the desired class. All lessons that taught during learning session were planned collaboratively by Renos and Kyriakiri with the purpose to collect data and implement CAR. At the end of the lesson, all data were discussed and analysed. Any problematic activities, practices and results were discussed for further analysis as well as designing new activities to provide more inclusive education. Data were collected from Renos reflections and his comments regarding the behavior and action of Kyriaki and her students. Tape recorded interviews, lessons and vignettes were some type of data used in this research. In order to establish the trustworthiness of the data, two methods of triangulation were used, by cross-compared and examined the data from multiple angles and perspectives.
Then, entering the next step was data analysis. Six stages were involved. First stage the data were organized and studied separately. After did some reading, data were examined in the second stage to see its connection within a theoretical model. In the third stage data were divided into categories and named. In the forth stage all categories were put together in bigger groups. In the fifth and sixth stages, each category were substantiate with raw data. Collaboratively, the themes were set as well as the data used to substantiate these themes. Unfortunately, these themes were overlapping and interrelated. Thus, separation had to be done. Themes that emerge from this research were differentiation of planning and teaching also teacher as a leader. Parents also play an important factor in CAR process because parents contribute for the success of inclusive education. So, Kyriaki had invited parents come to school for the purpose of discussing and co-planning the learning of their children. Thus, parents were directly involved in the learning of their children.

Research outcomes:
This project had developed inclusive practices in the classroom. Its improve equal opportunities for all students. Participation of teachers with the help of some ‘outsiders’ such as academics and school advisor also can help in develop more inclusive practice. Thus, small internal learning networks develop in the school then becoming communities of learning.

Journal 1

Article title : Action Research in language teacher education
Author : Christine Wong and Wang Qiang
Journal Collection: ELT Journal Volume 50 (3) page 254 - 262
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Year : 1996

The aim of this project is to introduce the notion of action research into China, to encourage reflective teaching and classroom research among trainee teacher, and to act as a bridge between the theories studied and the practical realities of the classroom.

Trainee teachers and undergraduates students

The action research runs both teaching practice and (TP) and English Language Teaching (ELT) Methodology components. Take place in Beijing Normal University (BNU), this project was assigned for two semesters. First semester to familiarize the participants both practically and theoretically of action research while during second semester, trainees implement their action research cycle in the classroom.

Begin with sensitization process in the first semester, workshops, seminars and discussions were organized by giving some statements and practical questions about teacher training programme. Then, trainees were divided into groups, so they can discuss about the theories and find available literature on action research as preparation for them writing a seminar paper. Then, various data including case studies, audio and video technique, teacher and learner diaries, questionnaires, interviewing and classroom observation sheets were analyzed. For example, they were asked to make an oral presentation and writing a report based on analyzed questionnaires containing data on English teaching and learning problems. After that, appropriate research stages were planned, starting from the problem identification session, preliminary investigation, formulation of possible solutions and lastly data collections and evaluation. Entering second semester, the trainees focusing on implement their own research cycle in the classroom and writing a research report.

Research outcomes:
This project had increased awareness of the teaching and learning process as well as classroom situation. It also improves classroom research skills by having more variety of classroom activities.

Kajian Kepustakaan

Kajian kepustakaan dilakukan bagi mendapatkan sorotan ke atas bahan-bahan literatur seperti buku-buku ilmiah, jurnal, artikel seminar dan laporan. Sumber-sumber yang didapati boleh dijadikan sebagai panduan bagi melakukan kajian tindakan dan seterusnya menyediakan laporan kajian untuk diterbitkan sebagai artikel dan jurnal. Kajian kepustakaan ini penting kerana melalui kaedah ini para penyelidik mendapat gambaran yang jelas mengenai prinsip, konsep, kaedah, pengolahan dan penganalisisan data yang bersesuaian dengan reka bentuk kajian tindakan mereka. Kajian kepustakaan melibatkan beberapa proses yang utama, iaitu membanding dan membezakan, menganalisis, menilai, membuat kesimpulan serta mensintesis.

Membanding dan membezakan

Proses ini dilakukan bagi mencari persamaan dan perbezaan berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria yang tertentu. Kaedah ini digunakan apabila terdapat dua atau lebih ciri-ciri atau kemungkinan dalam sesuatu bahan literatur yang dikaji. Berdasarkan maklumat yang diperolehi, pilihan atau keputusan yang tepat perlulah dilakukan untuk memastikan kajian yang akan dilakukan berjaya dan bermanfaat kepada semua. Antara langkah-langkah yang perlu diikuti adalah yang pertama, perhati dan berikan tumpuan kepada satu atau beberapa ciri kajian tindakan seperti sampel, setting, prosedur, pengumpulan dan penganalisisan data. Kemudian, kenalpasti ciri kajian tindakan dan tentukan ciri-ciri yang sama antara satu dengan yang lainnya. Cari persamaan dan perbezaan antara kriteria-krirteria tersebut.


Proses ini dilakukan bagi mengolah maklumat dengan menghuraikannya kepada bahagian-bahagian yang lebih kecil bagi memahami sesuatu konsep atau peristiwa serta bagi mencari makna yang tersirat. Proses ini juga dilakukan bagi mengenali dan memahami hubungkait antara bahagian-bahagian serta untuk mengenali prinsip-prinsip yang terlibat dalam sesuatu kajian yang dilakukan.


Proses ini dilakukan bagi membuat pertimbangan mengenai sesuatu perkara dari segi kebaikan dan kelemahan berdasarkan bukti atau dalil yang sah. Penilaian dilakukan untuk membuat keputusan bagi memilih sesuatu serta menerima atau menolak idea.

Membuat kesimpulan
Membuat kesimpulan merupakan suatu proses membuat pernyataan mengenai hasil sesuatu kajian yang dilakukan berdasarkan kepada sesuatu hipotesis. Ianya juga bagi mengukuhkan sesuatu perkara berdasarkan penyiasatan. Proses ini juga dilakukan bagi membuat keputusan, menerangkan sesuatu perkara serta meramal dan menyokong pernyataan.

Proses ini melibatkan penggabungan beberapa idea, unsur, item dan perkara yang berasingan untuk menghasilkan suatu gambaran yang menyeluruh dalam bentuk pernyataan, esei, lukisan dan artifak.

Friday, May 15, 2009

Sebab -sebab Orang Menentang Perubahan & Cara Mengatasinya

Tugasan berkumpulan.
Mohd Faizal bin Mahmod (P48647)
Noor Azima binti Zohari (P48685)
Norhidayu binti Mohd Naim (P48664)

Antara sebab-sebab orang menentang perubahan adalah seperti berikut.
1) Mereka takut adat kebiasaan mereka akan musnah/luput dek kerana berlakunya perubahan.
2) Bagi mereka perubahan selalu membawa kepada sesuatu yang negatif dan sukar untuk ditafsirkan. Maka, mereka akan menolak sekeras-kerasnya perubahan tersebut.
3) Pemikiran mereka yang kolot dan masih tidak berkembang.
4) Sifat individu tertentu yang malas untuk melakukan segala perubahan, meskipun dalam diri sendiri.
5) Anggapan diri bahawa sesuatu perubahan itu adalah sesuatu yang kompleks dan sukar untuk dilaksanakan kerana melibatkan pelaksanaan beberapa perkara khusus tertentu.
6) Perubahan melibatkan anjakan tindakan kepada sesuatu yang berbeza. Sekiranya dalam sesuatu situasi itu mereka sudah biasa dan selesa dengannya, apa gunanya perubahan? Maka,perubahan itu tidak akan berlaku dan ditolak sekeras-kerasnya.
7) Bagi mereka, pembaziran dari segi masa dan wang ringgit akan berlaku sekiranya perubahan yang dilakukan tidak mendatangkan hasil yang diharapkan.
8) Kadangkala, akibat sering kali menghadapi kegagalan apabila setiap kali perubahan dilakukan juga turut mendorong mereka menentang perubahan.

Cara mengatasinya adalah seperti berikut.
1) Menganjurkan kem motivasi dan pemantapan sahsiah diri agar mereka bersedia melakukan perubahan di dalam diri.
2) Brainwash dengan menekankan bahawa perubahan itu membawa kepada sesuatu yang positif dan berharga.
3) Sentiasa menanamkan pemikiran yang positif bahawa perubahan itu sesuatu yang bererti dalam kehidupan.
4) Kegagalan itu mesti dihadapi dengan hati dan minda yang terbuka agar perubahan itu membuahkan kejayaan. Sememangnya setiap perkara itu mesti ada kegagalan dan cabaran yang perlu ditempuhi dengan tabah. Itu semua adalah dugaan sebelum tibanya kejayaan.